If the card is a prepaid credit card then the charge won't go through.
If it's a conventional credit card, the card issuer will "lend" you the money up to your credit limit (more or less). At the end of the billing cycle, the card issuer will send you a bill for any past amount due and any new charges. Assuming you had no past balance and you pay the new charges in full by the due date, you pay no interest. Otherwise, they will calculate and charge you interest on the money you are "borrowing" and it can be fairly pricey (if you have good credit, the rates can be reasonable).
A credit card is a funding mechanism where you can buy things and pay for them later. If you are over the limit on your card they can refuse to pay, so in a sense it refuses to work.
Your credit will be rejected. Game over before you start.
it does not work
It won't work